The presence of drainage systems – it is a prerequisite required to complete the roof of its main functions. Ali Partovi describes an additional similar source. Drain provides drainage of water directed from the roof, which helps protect the outer walls and base of water, and foundation of the house – from the humidity. In addition to its functionality and modern drainage systems are an important element of the external decoration of the roof and give a finished look. Rainwater systems are divided into three basic types: an unorganized, internal and external-organized system. The first kind is a way to drain where the water flows down from the roof directly on the ground, and this method is acceptable except for small buildings with lean-to roof.
Internal drainage systems are used primarily in high-rise buildings: they are placed inside the building at some distance from the exterior walls. Outdoor organized water drainage system removes water flowing down from the roof to the exterior gutters, and use this type of drainage is the most common. Outdoor water drainage system includes the horizontal wall or hanging gutters and vertical gutters and drains. Depending on the external design of the house, you can choose a round or rectangular gutters. The size of each element runoff is determined by regulations and is calculated for each of the roof, so as to take into account the slope and the roof area, as well as calculate the number and location of the points of water flow.
Materials for production drains are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), galvanized steel and copper. Gutter system made of PVC, or plastic gutters, today considered one of the most popular on the market. Their main advantage – it's resistance to adverse effects of natural and corrosion, which is the real scourge of metal gutters. In addition, the plastic drain is not susceptible to chemical attack (Acids and hydrocarbons) and ultraviolet rays. Plastic drain is easy to install and the connection of its elements by adhesive means and with rubber seals. Rubbers and free combination of elements drainage to minimize the change of its linear dimensions under the influence of temperature, characteristic of all plastic construction. Plastic drainage systems rather strong as the wall thickness provides mechanical strength and stability to the load of snow and ice. Naturally, plenty of rainfall and snowmelt from the roof can damage even the quality gutter, so it became necessary to consider the replacement of its individual elements. In this regard, the plastic is also more convenient because the technical renovation of metal gutters requires a substantial financial and time costs. Source STROIM-NN.Ru Novgorod building portal
You can also do to regulate the temperature in the room, taking into account your own schedule. In order to save electricity system allows you to program certain schedule your floor. For example, you go to work, on vacation or just go to sleep, given the program the thermostat lowers the temperature of the heating and the time to return home or wake up, he again warms the air and pick you up the warmth. We touch technology installation of such floors. Note that this type of heating system will not spoil the beauty and uniqueness of your interior as well as "warm floor" placed under 3-5 cm thick concrete screed and thus become invisible to your eyes. The basis of this system is heating cable that converts electricity into heat. It fits around the snake perimeter of the room and, as mentioned above, the "hidden" under a layer of concrete.
During operation, the system heats up the concrete screed, which in turn gives off heat to the environment. An important point is how should be a good cable to the floor could last for a long time. Of course, you must select a heating cable, where the inner vein may be of nichrome, brass, galvanized steel or other material constitutes know-how of the firm. And around the veins should be an insulating material consisting of two to four layers, which not only prevent any strain or cable, but also reduce electromagnetic radiation, produced by this system. For the almost complete absence of electromagnetic radiation, in addition to single cable, in practice, also use two-wire cable because the magnetic fields both lived relatively compensated. Besides working with bipolar cable is much simpler, since there is no need to cable to the top of its installation, as they do with solid. Using the "warm floor" can be as basic and Combined, that is, together with other heating elements, such as radiators.
Often come to the flower shop, you can not choose the right bouquet. I would like to propose that the men are a few simple tips for choosing and giving flowers. – Give flowers unexpectedly. Do not wait for a certain day and do not look for a reason. Give flowers for no reason and cause. So your beloved will be pleasantly surprised and bouquet will bring a much more positive emotions than the expected bunch on a certain day.
– Do not forget about other flowers can be Gifts for any occasion, any day. Your loved ones will appreciate this concern. If you give a bouquet of sweetheart as a token of your feelings and she certainly expects you gifts, the mother, sister, girlfriend, daughter did not expect you to such unexpected gifts, and will be happy to double. – Try to impress. Try not to repeat. There are so many colors.
Roses come in many colors, not to mention the varieties. Every time you can give different flavor and thus each time to please his favorite of the new. Typically, most women like flowers delicate shades. – Flowers never bored. A gift of flowers is never banal. Flower arrangements are very diverse, and each flower has its own charm and uniqueness. Florists constantly invent new flowers, new compositions. A gift of flowers will always be to the article and you'll always be able to please the recipient. – To give flowers to the soul. A woman may feel, and give you flowers with all my heart or just doing a favor. Try to give flowers with feeling and will be rewarded. – Refer to a professional florist is very difficult to choose bunch without knowing the basic rules. Florists will always be able to help in the selection and composition. Choosing colors can be difficult for the uninitiated males. Fortunately, you can always use professional help. Consult a professional florist. It tells you how to combine your flower arrangement with a sense of her personality.
For example, talk about fire-resistance rating. This figure means of protection is regulated by existing regulations. For steel it is characterized by the number of minutes from the start fire tests to reach a critical temperature (500 0 C) a standard sample of steel construction with flame retardant coating. In advertising, protective coatings can be read "refers to the means of Group 1 fire protection efficiency. " This means that the time to reach the critical temperature must be at least 150 minutes. For the second group the figure – at least 120 minutes and so on. In total there are 6 groups.
For timber introduce other measures of fire protection or impregnating composition. According to GOST 16363-76 (a careful reading of the instructions you will definitely see a link to it), there are only three groups of flame retardant efficiency. Group I – provides slow-wood (weight loss of the prototype during the combustion of certain conditions, the method is not more than 9%). Group II – provides inflammable wood (weight loss of 9 to 30%). Group III – funds do not provide the fire protection of timber (weight loss of more than 30%). Therefore, when buying a flame retardant, look at the number of fire-resistance rating. What he less, the composition better.
Sometimes it happens that the technology of applying the rules of composition and its flow rate depends on its effectiveness. Materials for tissue has its own standard, under which the test results flammable Textile materials are subdivided into flammable and inflammable. What is fire-retardant paint all flame retardants can be divided into impregnation, paints and varnishes. The word "treatment" rather eloquently. They are intended mainly to protect the wood and textile products, that is, for those materials that can infiltrate. If you try to briefly explain the "principle of the" impregnation we can say that certain temperatures in these compounds is substitution reaction with the absorption of energy, which inhibits burning.
Typically, these models allow you to connect the individual and also for takeout device, one or two additional video cameras, some have built-in video memory. At this point interface card with access outside panel designed primarily for black and white video monitors, but soon to appear relevant to the design and color models. A few words about the additional opportunities. A number of models allows you to connect an additional block of graphics memory (and some Videophones have already built the video memory). In this case, the video phone is transformed into a kind of 'videoavtootvetchik' or mini DVR – video visits can be recorded using the button, and in the absence of the owner – automatically. Later, these images can be viewed, deleted or retained.
If access to the functions of the video door must have a few rooms, you can choose models allowing parallel work of several video monitors (up to 4) additional connection audiotrubki, which operates in parallel with the monitor and performs all its functions, except for watching video. Often before they let the visitor, it is necessary not only to see it, but view the situation in other places around the corner, near the front door, in the elevator lobby, etc. You must use videomonitry, allowing you to connect additional cameras (street, hidden, body, etc.), in turn allowing you to display video from all connected cameras in the simplest described above Video door configuration is missing one very important and useful feature – opening the door to let the visitor when necessary.
The first stage of the technology of its manufacture is to prepare a sketch. Should first take into account the fact that the art parquet is not created spontaneously, as is well thought out piece of interior. In other words, you can not put it the way you want, not having thought at the same furniture, fixtures, accessories, or it may happen that all the outdoor beauty will be encumbered by any sofa, and the efforts of designers will be in vain. Often patterned parquet holds as a basic element of the interior – and in this case you need not detract from his attention, that is not clutter the room with furniture and accessories. That is why the original designer created the sketch, and then experts pick the appropriate color wood. To appreciate the complexity of the work, rather say that figure may include a few dozen different types of wood. It is important to take into account the technological compatibility of different types of wood – European and exotic breeds are very different from each another, and some are just impossible to locate near them without prior training.
The next step is cutting and fitting – if laying technology and has not undergone major changes over the past two centuries, the Slicing technology has moved forward – by cutting parts with laser equipment of last generation. A very important role in laying plays the preparation of the base – it must be perfectly flat. For This use leveling compounds that are applied to the soil, glue and plywood. Then, cut the parquet elements are prepared for the flooring. After sanding and priming the plywood, it bears an adhesive, to which are attached details of the parquet, and thus made them an ideal fit. The final step is polishing the finished surface, then polished. After polishing the parquet you are greeted by a real masterpiece, which will be please look for many more years. Just do not forget that any flooring is capricious and demanding to care coverage, so experts recommend every 5 years, subject to sanding and update the paintwork.
To mount a single-level ceiling plasterboard ceiling required profile, crabs (peer connectors), the entry ceiling profile, straight hangers, hardware, tape, putty and drywall. First of all, we need make appropriate measurements of the room to calculate the amount of construction and materials. Often, the room can not have a regular rectangular shape, a rhomboid and trapezius of the curvature of the walls, the collapse of the corners. This error can be expressed by a few inches, but it also should be taken into account. Installation and start-up profile of suspensions is the basis of a single-level metal frame ceiling. Starter profile mounted on dowels or anchors, depending on the density of the base. To compensate for the acoustic oscillations at the start profile and hangers installed damper tape.
Attachment must be durable and reliable. Suspensions of ferro-concrete ceiling better to mount wedge anchors. The length of each profile, you must peremeryat in place, as that of an irregularly shaped room the length of the opposite wall will be different. If the standard lengths starting profile enough, it can connect the connector line. The guide forms a ceiling profile ceiling plane for sheetrock installation, it must be perfectly flat. For fixing of bearing ceiling profiles to choose the smaller side rooms, up to 4 m. If the size of the room than the standard length of the ceiling on both sides of the profile, you need to connect the profiles line connector with fixing screws. By carrying profiles attached crabs, which are attached to transverse sections, forming a cell with dimensions of about 50×50 cm frame project must provide for an additional fastening profile for installation of chandeliers, cornices and other equipment, which mounted on the ceiling.
After installing the ceiling profile and crabs in place to make connections with screws for the fixation stiffness. Frame attached to gypsum board. Sheets of drywall to mounted with screws spaced not over 30, see Installing drywall sheets to provide a gap between them of about 5 mm and the seams should not be passing into the next sheet seams straight lines. Sheets Drywall should have to be offset from the adjacent transverse sides. Finishing putty mixtures is followed by the alignment and grouting abrasive grids. Proper installation gypsum ceiling will ensure their reliability and durability.
Production of shaped tube developed in virtually any manufacturer of metal products. Tube profile has a wide range of applications in construction, production of building structures, agricultural engineering and other industries. The use of tubes in the production of core building structures has several advantages, leading ultimately to save metal, and therefore, money. The pipe is made of electric-profile profiling method of round billets directly in the line of welding mills. It provides high precision pipe dimensions.
Profile pipes produced without heat treatment. Quality control of the weld is carried out non-destructive testing instruments. Technical requirements according to GOST 13663-89. Pipes are distinguished by the form of the cross-section: common tube (ring section) and Steel steel tubes (square, rectangular, oval, flat-tube). In this article we consider the region of square and rectangular. Profile pipes are made of steels: St2, St3, 08kp, 10,20 and low-alloy 09G2S, 17GS (GOST 1050-88 and GOST 380-94).
The mechanical characteristics of pipes with GOST 13663-86. Rectangular and square shaped tubes are used in the construction of: Shopping complexes exhibition halls Stadiums and sports facilities Industrial buildings Warehouses masts, transmission towers and cell towers trestle towers, bridges, elevators, cranes, etc. The use of rectangular and square steel profile tubes is effective for the construction of tall buildings (metal frame) and long-span structures. The main types of shaped tubes Building shaped tubes are used as fasteners, pillars and columns: 1. Columns of buildings, including – light tsentralnoszhatye 2. Building a farm (the band, grating, etc.) 3. Communication to cover 4. The vertical columns of links on all types of buildings 5. Elements of wall fencing (girders and Rack fachwerk) 6. Elements tall lattice structures (power lines, radio tower, cell tower) 7. Frameworks Chimney 8. Bridge construction (for communication, grids – use special steel bridge) 9. Frame elements 10. Any Svjaseva elements in housing 11. Industrial Gallery (CHP, steel mills, power stations, hangars, etc.), etc. The advantages of using rectangular and square steel tubes in the core construction are: Reduction of metal objects (such as when used as a savings of metal columns in the order of 25% compared with I-beam) Increased speed and convenience installation erected buildings and structures Increased corrosion resistance of steel (compared with other types of long-rolled steel) Ensuring compliance with sanitation standards, ease of sanitizing and disinfecting Providing fire protection and fire protection standards compliance, ease of handling special equipment Cold formed, electric-shaped tubes can effectively replace traditional types of construction steel beams, channels, angles. Ability to use a wide variety of design and architectural solutions for the creation of modern forms and proportions, etc. Builders Abroad decades prefer square and rectangular shaped tubes. The modern buildings of metal, glass and concrete (high-rise apartment buildings, offices, banks, sports facilities, etc.) that adorn most of the cities for abroad, were built with square and rectangular steel sections.