The presence of drainage systems – it is a prerequisite required to complete the roof of its main functions. Ali Partovi describes an additional similar source. Drain provides drainage of water directed from the roof, which helps protect the outer walls and base of water, and foundation of the house – from the humidity. In addition to its functionality and modern drainage systems are an important element of the external decoration of the roof and give a finished look. Rainwater systems are divided into three basic types: an unorganized, internal and external-organized system. The first kind is a way to drain where the water flows down from the roof directly on the ground, and this method is acceptable except for small buildings with lean-to roof.
Internal drainage systems are used primarily in high-rise buildings: they are placed inside the building at some distance from the exterior walls. Outdoor organized water drainage system removes water flowing down from the roof to the exterior gutters, and use this type of drainage is the most common. Outdoor water drainage system includes the horizontal wall or hanging gutters and vertical gutters and drains. Depending on the external design of the house, you can choose a round or rectangular gutters. The size of each element runoff is determined by regulations and is calculated for each of the roof, so as to take into account the slope and the roof area, as well as calculate the number and location of the points of water flow.
Materials for production drains are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), galvanized steel and copper. Gutter system made of PVC, or plastic gutters, today considered one of the most popular on the market. Their main advantage – it's resistance to adverse effects of natural and corrosion, which is the real scourge of metal gutters. In addition, the plastic drain is not susceptible to chemical attack (Acids and hydrocarbons) and ultraviolet rays. Plastic drain is easy to install and the connection of its elements by adhesive means and with rubber seals. Rubbers and free combination of elements drainage to minimize the change of its linear dimensions under the influence of temperature, characteristic of all plastic construction. Plastic drainage systems rather strong as the wall thickness provides mechanical strength and stability to the load of snow and ice. Naturally, plenty of rainfall and snowmelt from the roof can damage even the quality gutter, so it became necessary to consider the replacement of its individual elements. In this regard, the plastic is also more convenient because the technical renovation of metal gutters requires a substantial financial and time costs. Source STROIM-NN.Ru Novgorod building portal
Also need to make a characterization of the projected construction, which would point to its name, the number of residents and the local sewage plant location cottage. Still need to calculate the flow of wastewater, namely water use and sanitation. By Kit documents are also applied sewage scheme in the country, will show the plan a treatment plant, is a diagram of the treatment of domestic sewage, septic tank performance, quality of treatment and the procedure for disposal formed in the course of such a system of waste. Finally, a stack of documents and diagrams complements characterization receiving water purified and clarified sewage. I do not pretend to be complete list of required documents. The information may be outdated, so I recommend to build a septic tank to consult the local authorities about the required documents at the moment. The most important thing when constructing sewage country home – do not harm the environment, and this requires that the quality of wastewater in septic tank liquids compliance with the norms of environmental organizations. Therefore, I suggest that you find all the requirements to effect cleaning and take them into account when choosing a septic tank.
This way you protect yourself from unnecessary expenses. Now, a bit of data needed to design and follow-up sewerage in the country. As I said earlier, one of the most important documents for the design of the local sewer district is a situational plan. You will also need to make topographical survey of the construction site and be sure to make an engineering-geological study the installation site septic tank. It is necessary to define the requirements for the placement of the installation that you will surely have to consider when building. When the device needs to know the number of sewage septic users, their permanent or seasonal residence, type of soil, groundwater depth, topography of the surrounding terrain, the location of the water intake system (if any nearby), the climate, the demands environmental organizations in the region. Finally, I would like to say a few words about the basic rules of design for private house sewer. Sewer construction work without a septic tank with waste water disposal in special airtight container (vygreb) for further exports to the wastewater treatment plant is permitted only with the consumption of water
For example, talk about fire-resistance rating. This figure means of protection is regulated by existing regulations. For steel it is characterized by the number of minutes from the start fire tests to reach a critical temperature (500 0 C) a standard sample of steel construction with flame retardant coating. In advertising, protective coatings can be read "refers to the means of Group 1 fire protection efficiency. " This means that the time to reach the critical temperature must be at least 150 minutes. For the second group the figure – at least 120 minutes and so on. In total there are 6 groups.
For timber introduce other measures of fire protection or impregnating composition. According to GOST 16363-76 (a careful reading of the instructions you will definitely see a link to it), there are only three groups of flame retardant efficiency. Group I – provides slow-wood (weight loss of the prototype during the combustion of certain conditions, the method is not more than 9%). Group II – provides inflammable wood (weight loss of 9 to 30%). Group III – funds do not provide the fire protection of timber (weight loss of more than 30%). Therefore, when buying a flame retardant, look at the number of fire-resistance rating. What he less, the composition better.
Sometimes it happens that the technology of applying the rules of composition and its flow rate depends on its effectiveness. Materials for tissue has its own standard, under which the test results flammable Textile materials are subdivided into flammable and inflammable. What is fire-retardant paint all flame retardants can be divided into impregnation, paints and varnishes. The word "treatment" rather eloquently. They are intended mainly to protect the wood and textile products, that is, for those materials that can infiltrate. If you try to briefly explain the "principle of the" impregnation we can say that certain temperatures in these compounds is substitution reaction with the absorption of energy, which inhibits burning.
To mount a single-level ceiling plasterboard ceiling required profile, crabs (peer connectors), the entry ceiling profile, straight hangers, hardware, tape, putty and drywall. First of all, we need make appropriate measurements of the room to calculate the amount of construction and materials. Often, the room can not have a regular rectangular shape, a rhomboid and trapezius of the curvature of the walls, the collapse of the corners. This error can be expressed by a few inches, but it also should be taken into account. Installation and start-up profile of suspensions is the basis of a single-level metal frame ceiling. Starter profile mounted on dowels or anchors, depending on the density of the base. To compensate for the acoustic oscillations at the start profile and hangers installed damper tape.
Attachment must be durable and reliable. Suspensions of ferro-concrete ceiling better to mount wedge anchors. The length of each profile, you must peremeryat in place, as that of an irregularly shaped room the length of the opposite wall will be different. If the standard lengths starting profile enough, it can connect the connector line. The guide forms a ceiling profile ceiling plane for sheetrock installation, it must be perfectly flat. For fixing of bearing ceiling profiles to choose the smaller side rooms, up to 4 m. If the size of the room than the standard length of the ceiling on both sides of the profile, you need to connect the profiles line connector with fixing screws. By carrying profiles attached crabs, which are attached to transverse sections, forming a cell with dimensions of about 50×50 cm frame project must provide for an additional fastening profile for installation of chandeliers, cornices and other equipment, which mounted on the ceiling.
After installing the ceiling profile and crabs in place to make connections with screws for the fixation stiffness. Frame attached to gypsum board. Sheets of drywall to mounted with screws spaced not over 30, see Installing drywall sheets to provide a gap between them of about 5 mm and the seams should not be passing into the next sheet seams straight lines. Sheets Drywall should have to be offset from the adjacent transverse sides. Finishing putty mixtures is followed by the alignment and grouting abrasive grids. Proper installation gypsum ceiling will ensure their reliability and durability.
Production of shaped tube developed in virtually any manufacturer of metal products. Tube profile has a wide range of applications in construction, production of building structures, agricultural engineering and other industries. The use of tubes in the production of core building structures has several advantages, leading ultimately to save metal, and therefore, money. The pipe is made of electric-profile profiling method of round billets directly in the line of welding mills. It provides high precision pipe dimensions.
Profile pipes produced without heat treatment. Quality control of the weld is carried out non-destructive testing instruments. Technical requirements according to GOST 13663-89. Pipes are distinguished by the form of the cross-section: common tube (ring section) and Steel steel tubes (square, rectangular, oval, flat-tube). In this article we consider the region of square and rectangular. Profile pipes are made of steels: St2, St3, 08kp, 10,20 and low-alloy 09G2S, 17GS (GOST 1050-88 and GOST 380-94).
The mechanical characteristics of pipes with GOST 13663-86. Rectangular and square shaped tubes are used in the construction of: Shopping complexes exhibition halls Stadiums and sports facilities Industrial buildings Warehouses masts, transmission towers and cell towers trestle towers, bridges, elevators, cranes, etc. The use of rectangular and square steel profile tubes is effective for the construction of tall buildings (metal frame) and long-span structures. The main types of shaped tubes Building shaped tubes are used as fasteners, pillars and columns: 1. Columns of buildings, including – light tsentralnoszhatye 2. Building a farm (the band, grating, etc.) 3. Communication to cover 4. The vertical columns of links on all types of buildings 5. Elements of wall fencing (girders and Rack fachwerk) 6. Elements tall lattice structures (power lines, radio tower, cell tower) 7. Frameworks Chimney 8. Bridge construction (for communication, grids – use special steel bridge) 9. Frame elements 10. Any Svjaseva elements in housing 11. Industrial Gallery (CHP, steel mills, power stations, hangars, etc.), etc. The advantages of using rectangular and square steel tubes in the core construction are: Reduction of metal objects (such as when used as a savings of metal columns in the order of 25% compared with I-beam) Increased speed and convenience installation erected buildings and structures Increased corrosion resistance of steel (compared with other types of long-rolled steel) Ensuring compliance with sanitation standards, ease of sanitizing and disinfecting Providing fire protection and fire protection standards compliance, ease of handling special equipment Cold formed, electric-shaped tubes can effectively replace traditional types of construction steel beams, channels, angles. Ability to use a wide variety of design and architectural solutions for the creation of modern forms and proportions, etc. Builders Abroad decades prefer square and rectangular shaped tubes. The modern buildings of metal, glass and concrete (high-rise apartment buildings, offices, banks, sports facilities, etc.) that adorn most of the cities for abroad, were built with square and rectangular steel sections.