Any enterprise operating in a market economy, in accordance with the law, must keep records of their activities. Accounting statements of the enterprise consists of five forms: 1. Accounting Balance 2. Profit and Loss Statement 3. Statement of Changes in Equity 4. Statement of Cash Flows 5.
Annex to the Balance Sheet The basic form of accountability, which gives an understanding of the company – accounting balance. Balance is divided into two parts: the assets located on the left side, and passion – Rural location on the right side of the form 1. Liabilities (company) – a source of education property business, it includes three sections: 1. Capital and reserves – in this section include own funds. In many organizations, the first source of funding for the newly created company is the authorized capital. Later, in the process activities of the company (JSC) should (must) create Rezrvny fund, which is 15% of the share capital of the enterprise.
In the same section is added to Article 'Retained earnings (loss)' and 'Extra capital '. Availability of articles 'Retained earnings' indicates that the activities of the company is profitable, the availability of articles 'Accumulated deficit' is indicative of a losing organization. 2. Long-term liabilities – long-term loans 3. Short-term obligations – obligations to the budget to pay for taxes, obligations to the workers on the payroll, etc. The active part of the balance consists of two sections: 1. Non-current assets – buildings, construction in progress, ie all this means companies that transfer their value to the cost of finished goods for a long period of time. The main part of company's own funds should be in this part of the balance. 2. Current assets – raw materials, goods, receivables, cash, etc. As shown, for the normal functioning of the enterprise, in operating assets must attend at least 10% of own funds. As a refinement may be noted that the U.S. model of accounting, assets are located in order of decreasing liquidity and balance sheet of the Russian enterprise organization's assets are located in order to increase liquidity, ie, the enumeration starts with less liquidity.